Project Title : Robo-Soldier
Project Description:
This project is development of existing technologies for better use in military and industrial use to save as many as human lives possible. It is a remote controlled soldier which will detect and defuse bombs, surveillance on border, a robotic arm to pick-up objects. It will do tasks which are dangerous for humans. Motivation behind this project is to risk money instead of precious human lives
Name: Abhijeet Deshmukh


This week’s project comes from Abhijeet Deshmukh, from Mumbai. He is last year student of Electronis and Telecommunication branch from Yadavrao Tasgaonkar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Karjat .

Abhijeet likes to spend his leisure time with friends enjoying long bike rides, adventures activities like trekking, skating. He is award winning rifle shooter.



    Robot warriors have already seen action in Iraq, and the US Army plans to replace one-third of its armored vehicles and weapons with robots by 2015. These killing machines may one day come equipped with an artificial conscience even to the extent of disobeying immoral orders. The US Army's latest recruits are 1 meter (about 3 feet) tall, wear desert camouflage and are armed with black M249 machine guns. They also move on caterpillar tracks and thanks to five camera eyes can even see in the dark. The fearless fighters are three robot soldiers who, unnoticed by the general public, were deployed in Iraq in mid-June, charged with hunting down insurgents. As if guided by an unseen hand, they hone in on their targets and fire at them with their machine guns. It's the future of war and it's already here. “SWORDS” or the Special Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection System, "It's the first weaponized robot in the history of warfare," says Charles Dean, an engineer with Waltham, Massachusetts-based Foster-Miller, the manufacturer of the new devices. Dean and the 70 employees in his department are eager to find out how their three protégés are holding up on the front. Because the three robots, dubbed "Swords," are being used in a secret mission, their creators have no idea whether the devices have already killed enemy fighters in combat.
    Surveillance can be informally defined as “a close watch kept over something or someone with the purpose of detecting the occurrence of some relevant events”.
The person or thing to be watched should be understood to include humans,animals, areas, places, parts of aerospace, et cetera. What events are considered relevant depends on the type of surveillance and the reason why we do it.Most surveillance tasks are very mundane and automating them is highly desirable. Automated surveillance typically concerns itself with detection and recognition of relevant events. A system of CCTV cameras, microphones or smoke detectors can be used to detect interesting events or to analyse patterns of be-haviour. Most of the existing work on robotic surveillance is on recognition of relevant events.However, event recognition is only one aspect of surveillance. Another aspect, and the concern of this thesis, is that of selecting the right places to focus the surveillance attention on. A solution to this is essential in situations where using fixed surveillance sensors is either not possible, or not practical, or where mobile platforms are more socially acceptable since people then know they are being observed. Further, a solution to the problem of selecting the optimal places to focus attention on can be important not only to robots but also to human security guards. One way a robot can be used in surveillance is in the capacity of a (flexible)sensor.In that case, the planning of the surveillance task would be typicallydone by a human operator.An example is a security guard teleoperating a robot that inspects a hazardous environment.However, it is the next level that concerns us here. The main concern is to develop strategies or algorithms that move the robot in a way that the expected cost of relevant events remaining undetected is minimised. To make the discussion simpler we will focus on one type of relevant events.

    More than 50 years after author Isaac Asimov argued in his classic novel "I, Robot" that a robot should never be allowed to do harm to people, the development of automated killers has become unstoppable. Swords and Gladiator are the harbingers of a new type of warfare, in which killing will increasingly be left up to machines.
According to an internal US Army memo, armed machines "are making their way onto today's battlefields and will be extremely widespread on the battlefields of the future." The Pentagon's budget already includes up to $200 billion for a modernization program dubbed "Future Combat System." Under the program, robots will replace one third of armored vehicles and weapons by 2015. Automated warfare is also making inroads in Israel, where the military deploys robots along the country's 60-kilometer (37-mile) border with the Gaza Strip.

    "SWORDS" or the Special Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection System, "It's the first weaponized robot in the history of warfare," says Charles Dean, an engineer with Waltham, Massachusetts-based Foster-Miller, the manufacturer of the new devices. Dean and the 70 employees in his department are eager to find out how their three proteges are holding up on the front. Because the three robots, dubbed "Swords," are being used in a secret mission, their creators have no idea whether the devices have already killed enemy fighters in combat 
The fear that the machines could suddenly start letting loose on their own troops is still too great. Before Swords fires its first salvo at terrorists in Iraq, it needs the permission of two human operators. A supervisor presses a button on his remote control, which makes the machine gun operational. At the same time, another soldier must activate two red switches on this control unit to allow the robot to begin shooting.


          First of all let us consider few basics in building electronic circuits on a printed circuit board. The board is made of a thin insulating material clad with a thin layer of conductive copper that is shaped in such a way as to form the necessary conductors between the various components of the circuit.
The use of the properly designed printed circuited board is very desirable as it speeds construction up considerably and reduces the possibility of making errors. To protect the board during the storage from oxidation and assure it gets to you in perfect condition the copper is tinned during manufacturing and covered with a special varnish that protects it from getting oxidized and also makes soldering easier.
Soldering the components to your boar is the only way to build your circuit and from the way you do it depends, your success or failure. This work is not very difficult and if you stick to a few rules you should have no problems. The soldering iron that you use must be light and its power should not exceed 25 Watts. The tip should be fine and must be kept clean at all times. For this purpose come very handy specially made sponges that are kept wet and from time to time you can wipe the hot tip on them to remove all the residues that tend to accumulate on it.
DO NOT file or sandpaper a dirty or worn out tip. If the tip cannot be cleaned, replace it. There are many different types of solder in the market and you should choose a good quality one that contains the necessary flux in its core, to assure a perfect joint every time. DO NOT use soldering flux apart from that which is already included in your solder. Too much flux can cause many problems and is one of the main causes of circuit malfunction. 
If nevertheless you have to use extra flux, as it is the case when you have to tin copper wire, clean it very thoroughly after you finish your work. In order to solder a components correctly you should do the following:-
  • Cleaning the components leads with a small piece of emery paper.
  • Ben them at the correct distance from the component’s body and insert the components with heavier gauge than leads usual, that are too thick to enter in the holes too large as this is going to make soldering difficult afterwards.
  • Take the hot iron and place its tip on the components lead while holding the end of the solder wire at the point where lead emerges from the board. The iron tip must touch the lead emerges from the board. The iron tip must touch the lead slightly above the PCB.
  • When the solder starts to melt and flow wait till it covers evenly the area around the hole and the flux boils and gets out from underneath the solder. The whole operation should not take more than 5 seconds. Remove the iron and allow the solder to cool naturally without blowing on it or moving the component. If everything was done properly the surface of the joint must have a bright metallic finish and its edges should be smoothly ended on the component lead and the board track. If the solder looks dull, cracked, or has the shape of a blob then you have made a dry joint and you should remove it with a pump or a solder wick and redo it.


          Major advantages of robotic technology in warfare: "Machines don't get tired. They don't close their eyes. They don't hide under trees when it rains and they don't talk to their friends ... A human's attention to detail on guard duty drops dramatically in the first 30 minutes ... Machines know no fear."
          Increasing attention is also paid to how to make the robots more autonomous, with a view of eventually allowing them to operate on their own for extended periods of time, possibly behind enemy lines. For such functions, systems like the Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot are being tried, which is intended to gain its own energy by foraging for plant matter. The majority of all military robots are tele-operated and not equipped with weapons; they are used for surveillance, sniper detection, neutralizing explosive devices, etc. The robots that are equipped with weapons are tele-operated  so they are not capable of taking lives autonomously.
         Unmanned vehicles are important instruments in modern warfare. The most widely spread, the so-called drones, are predominantly used for surveillance. These small aircrafts can take pictures of a region without being recognized as large planes. If an enemy shoots the drone down, the loss is relatively small and, more importantly, does not harm any humans. Both drones and unmanned ground vehicles can also be used as weapons. Soldiers can control the bomb and gun carrying devices via satellite and do fear human casualties on their own side. After the first few years of experimenting and development, today seems to be the ‘golden age’ of military robots. However, experts are recognizing potential developments and view today’s robots as a Ford Model T, as this is only one of the first stages of robot development within the military.3 More and more devices perform certain tasks automatically and are, in this way, able to substitute humans. If soldiers cannot be substituted completely, they move their position behind a computer from which their robot will be controlled.
        Robotics is the art and commerce of robots, their design, manufacture, application, and practical use. Robots will soon be everywhere, in our home and at work. They will change the way we live. This will raise many philosophical, social, and political questions that will have to be answered. In science fiction, robots become so intelligent that they decide to take over the world because humans are deemed inferior.
        In real life, however, they might not choose to do that. Robots might follow rules such as Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics, that will prevent them from doing so. When the Singularity happens, robots will be indistinguishable from human beings and some people may become Cyborgs: half man and half machine.

    Both industrial and military robots share a common history, which began centuries ago. The use of automatic devices was first recognized at the end of the 19 th Century. There are hardly any books detailing the history of military robots in particular, but the topic is mentioned in standard books on robotics, such as the work of ANGELO1 or SICILIANO and KATHIB, for instance. In WILLIAMSON, 4 too, gives a historical overview on technology – in this case the early years of spacecraft technology. VÁNYA does the same in Reference 10 dealing with the history of unmanned ground vehicles. A more detailed view on military robotic devices is given by Singer,3 in, “Wired for War”. His book deals with the history, as well as with the various applications within the military context and with the question of how warfare has been and will be influenced by the use of robots. Similarly, LELE6 makes suggestions on how technology can be used in military contexts.
Still, there are works that deal with the conflict between machines on the one hand and moral aspects on the other. In Reference 5 WALLACH explains the importance of teaching robots right from wrong. KOVÁCS11 and COOPER17 understand this as one of the major challenges, as well.
Literature can only conclude from recent projects what the future of military robots will look like. It is quite clear that the military has their own understanding of robots, since they do not discuss humanoids, but, instead, devices that support military actions by performing certain tasks automatically. Singer explores momentary research and gives his conclusions on what military robots will be like in the future.
SZABOLCSI7 gave methodology of the derivation of the critical parameters of the human operators manipulating spatial motion of UAVs and in Reference 8 a complex
stochastic mathematical model of the disturbances affecting aircraft motion is derived and proposed for further applications. SZABOLCSI and MIES9 give a short brief upon history and future of modern robotics.


Master Block Diagram:

Slave Block Diagram:

Above diagram shows the general functional diagram of system which is our proposed system. Exploration may be defined as the process of selecting and executing actions so that the maximal knowledge of the environment is acquired. The result  is the acquisition of models of the physical environment. So, the exploration of unknown environments involves map-building but it is not confined to this process. Generally this kind of exploration can be considered as two ways. First, the agent or robot has to interpret the findings of its sensors so as to make accurate deductions about the state of its environment. The second is that the important aspect of exploration of unknown environments is that the agent or robot has to select its viewpoints so that the sensory measurements contain new and useful information. It involves guiding a agent in such a way that it covers of view-points during exploration. In this research it is proposed to design of hybrid coordination mechanism based on the interaction of three rulers for intelligent agents: communication, intelligent task allocation and negotiation in a multi-agent robotic system. Several techniques have been proposed and it has been tested in real indoor and outdoor environments.

Using robots in place of human finds many limitations or issues such as:
  • Sensors are improved but cost will increase 
  • The angle of camera movement is limited 
  • Speed is slow of robot 
  • Video quality is ok. 


A surveillance planning, seen as an optimal search problem is presented in this paper. Althoughn this is a specific instance of surveillance planning, finding a solution to it proves to be exponentially hard computationally. Great amount of application in security, surveillance and exploration tasks to be monitored and tracked by sensors. On the other hand the closed loop self destruction surveillance (CLSDS) algorithm that take into account the coverage gain and cost in time to reach a particular grid cell present a better performance. Additionally, our future work consist of water resistant robots will be implemented as future enchantments. It works under water like submarine and detects the waterbed without a help of a human being.

People have missed how robotics have been sneaking up on the world. It is a revolution whose time has come. Most people don’t realize how frequently robots already are used, from painting cars on assembly lines to operating missions in space. Robots have been developed that can do anything from helping to cleanup hazardous waste sites to acting as autonomous tour guides.

The enabling technologies of robotics will see increased adoption into Military roles. Robotics in military applications may have a more far reaching effect to our personal safety and have greater global impact that any other type of robotics being used. They are currently used by the military in land mine detection, surveillance, reconnaissance operations, and for daily mundane duties, but to name a few.

As the price of computers decrease, the use and applications of robotics increase and robots become more intelligent. Future research will continue to focus on the perception and control of robotic mechanisms and to increase the level of autonomy and utility for military applications.

  • Implement uplink communication from the Robots to GUI Application through the Base Station. 
  • Control up to 10 Robots from the GUI Application through the Base Station. 
  • Use a secured wireless channel using encryption and decryption. 
  • Consider larger bandwidth system should be onboard because video streaming service desired.
  •  "TALON Military Robots, EOD, SWORDS, and Hazmat Robots - Foster-Miller". Foster-Miller<!. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
  • Shachtman, Noah (2007-08-02). "First Armed Robots on Patrol in Iraq (Updated) | Danger Room |". Retrieved 2009-09-23.
  • "The Inside Story of the SWORDS Armed Robot "Pullout" in Iraq: Update"Popular Mechanics. 2008-04-15.
  • Future of Armed Ground Robots in Combat Still Debated -, 15 August 2013
  • Army Technology - Foster-Miller - TALON Robots for Nuclear / Chemical Detection, EOD, IED, Weaponization and Reconnaissance