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Intelligent Tutoring System

Description: An Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) comes as a result of the application of the artificial intelligence in the field of education. the concept of ITS is briefly introduced in this article. The modules and structures in the ITS is also detailed.
An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is any computer system that provides direct customized instruction or feedback to students. the theory of learning by doing is implemented by the ITS. a range of different technologies maybe employed by the ITS to achieve its functionality.

Structure of an ITS system
The four different subsystems or modules of the ITS are:

The Interface Module
Provides the means for the student to interact with the ITS and usually includes a GUI feature.

The Expert Module
It consists of a description of the knowledge or behaviors that represent expertise in the subject-matter domain the ITS is teaching

The Student Module
This module consists of descriptions of student knowledge or behaviors, misconceptions and the knowledge gaps.

The Tutor module.
A mismatch between a student's behavior or knowledge and the expert's presumed behavior or knowledge is fed to this module which then takes the corrective action such as remedial teaching etc.
ITS is always the core content of artificial intelligence in education (AIED). The different tutor models con be adopted based on the student behaviour. To replace the human teachers and to achieve the best teaching by letting the computer system be the guide and helper is the ultimate aim of the ITS systems.

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development, to produce dynamic web pages. PHP is the widely-used, free, and efficient alternative to competitors such as Microsoft's ASP. All types of open source PHP code and applications are available on Open Source Scripts. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. As a general-purpose programming language, PHP code is processed by an interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers and as standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms.

The PHP Documentation Framework

The PHP documentation is written in XML using the DocBook DTD. If you would like to contribute to the PHP documentation project, you need to at least know the very basics of XML and DocBook.
The XML files are stored on a central server, and can be reached with a SVN client. There are many SVN clients you can use, although we recommend one command line tool or a proven WYSIWYG tool.
You will need more programs and tools to manipulate the XML files and test their content for errors. The tools you need depend on the operating system you use. Linux or some sort of Unix is recommended, although many things in phpdoc work on Windows. You will find more information about the tools you need in the tools section. 

MySQL is a database.

The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables.
A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows.

Databases are useful when storing data into server. A company may have a database with the following tables: "Employees", "Products", "Customers" and "Orders".

Basic object-oriented programming functionality was added in PHP 3 and improved in PHP 4. Object handling was completely rewritten for PHP 5, expanding the feature set and enhancing performance. In previous versions of PHP, objects were handled like value types. The drawback of this method was that the whole object was copied when a variable was assigned or passed as a parameter to a method. In the new approach, objects are referenced by handle, and not by value. PHP 5 introduced private and protected member variables and methods, along with abstract classes and final classes as well as abstract methods and final methods. It also introduced a standard way of declaring constructors and destructors, similar to that of other object-oriented languages such as C++, and a standard exception handling model. Furthermore, PHP 5 added interfaces and allowed for multiple interfaces to be implemented. There are special interfaces that allow objects to interact with the runtime system. Objects implementing ArrayAccess can be used with array syntax and objects implementing Iterator or IteratorAggregate can be used with the foreach language construct. There is no virtual table feature in the engine, so static variables are bound with a name instead of a reference at compile time.

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